Psychodynamic Psychiatry in the Medical Setting

The following is an extended version of a talk given by Dr. Michael Blumenfield at the World Psychiatric Meeting in Madrid Spain on September 15, 2014

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Introductory Case :

I would like to start off with a case history

Screen Shot 2014-07-14 at 6.17.34 PMThe patient is a 21 year old woman who has some paralysis in the right upper extremity and partial paralysis of the left lower extremity, weakness of the neck muscles, periods of persisting sleep walking as well as many other symptoms including a cough.

The symptoms came on after the patient’s father of whom she was very fond had become ill and subsequently died.

The patient’s internist Dr. B noted that the patient seemed to have alternating states of consciousness, which developed with regularity every day, during which she would talk and tell stories. She would talk about her past and how it was when she was a little girl as well as things that happened in the not too distant past. She would wake up feeling quite calm and then would go back to her usual clinical state.

Her internist became very interested in this patient and began to see her on a daily basis. He began to assist her to get into these altered states of consciousness by using a hypnotic technique. During the states he asked her to concentrate on each symptom. Eventually, she began to tell him about the circumstances that had occurred the first time that each of her symptoms had developed. When she came out of the trance, that particular symptom was gone. For example she told him that she began coughing for the first time while sitting at her ill father’s bedside and hearing the sound of dance music coming from a neighbor’s house. She had felt a sudden wish to be there and became overwhelmed with self reproaches and guilt feelings. Thereafter, whenever she heard music, she developed a cough. After this was brought out in the hypnotic state, the symptoms of coughing disappeared.

In the same way, her paralytic contractions, her numbness, hearing problems and other symptoms all disappeared.

The internist completed his treatment. While it was not in his original write up, some subsequent fact surrounding the case were not documented. Since the patient was cured of all her symptoms Dr. B. told her that he was Screen Shot 2014-07-14 at 6.23.51 PMterminating treatment and said good bye to her. However, that evening, he was called back to her house to find her in the throes of an hysterical childbirth.

We now understand that this was related to the patient’s “transference” which had been developing for some time. When the internist came into the room and asked what was wrong, the patient said, “ Dr. B’s baby is coming!” The doctor was overwhelmed by the situation and he had no way of understanding what was happening. He became profoundly shocked and took flight abandoning the patient to a colleague.

In retrospect, we understand that the internist had developed strong “countertransference feelings for his beautiful patient. He had been spending a good deal of time with her away from his family. He was emotionally involved with the patient and interested in her case. In his own background, his mother ( who happened to have the same first name as the patient) had died in childbirth when he was 5 years old. Unconsciously, he had become for his patient, the father whom she had lost and she was in turn the mother he had lost as a young boy.

Screen Shot 2014-07-26 at 9.53.55 PMThis case occurred more than 115 years ago. The internist was Dr. Joseph Breuer, who subsequently collaborated with a young neurologist by the name of Sigmund Freud who encouraged him to publish this case history. This case marked the beginning of psychodynamic psychiatry.

It is known as the Anno O case. In it we can see evidence of early childhood feelings impacting on neurotic symptoms, a conversion disorder as well as examples of transference and countertransference.

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Haiti Earthquake-Psychological Care Needed

More than 150,000 people have died in the recent devastating earthquake in Haiti. There is fear, anxiety, depression and tremendous psychological pain. The uncertainty about the future will intensify these emotional reactions. Most likely the initial help by mental health professionals will be to assist the stunned people in getting food, shelter and information about the whereabouts of their loved ones. Psychiatrists may write prescriptions for general medical conditions or even assist in emergency surgery. There also is a need for the authorities to provide “risk communication” of truthful information. Death notifications need to be done skillfully. Mental health professionals can be helpful in training for these tasks. In the immediate aftermath of a disaster, people may deny the reality of what has happened. There will be grieving by survivors for the many people who perished. Grief after unexpected violent death especially when it includes children can be prolonged and complicated with additional emotional problems including alcohol and drug problems. At least half of the survivors will have some symptoms of PTSD. There are various forms of mental health interventions which may be helpful. The psychological effect of such a disaster can also impact on the secondary victims which include all rescue and medical personnel as well as members of the media. Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals will play an important role in helping the people of Haiti to recover from this ordeal.

I am writing this blog 12 days after the devastating earthquake in Haiti. We are seeing and hearing about the tremendous need for food, water, medical personnel and supplies. HAITIThere are head injuries, broken bones with people  dying of infections and other complications of their injuries as well as facing the prospect of starvation. We know from experiences in other disasters that there has to be fear, anxiety, depression and tremendous psychological pain among the people of Haiti. Thousands of people have been killed with unimaginable numbers of people injured, displaced from homes, separated from families, without food, water or  shelter. There is great uncertainty about the future for these people and this alone will intensify their emotional reactions.

Is There A Role For Mental Health Professionals ?

Of course, at this time  there is a need for psychiatrists and other mental health professional in Haiti. However, everything is relative. After the terrorist attack in New York on 9/11 there was an abundance of mental health experts immediately available. They were put to work on the Pier 92, which was where the services for the victims were being organized. They were not assigned to do psychological therapy but rather assisted in helping the stunned people to get food, shelter and assist them in finding what happened to  their loved ones. Their psychological and interpersonal skills were no doubt helpful in carrying out these tasks even though most were not initially doing formal therapy.

Psychiatrists who have become involved in previous disasters often will write prescriptions for heart, thyroid, diabetic and mostly other non- psychiatric medications which people need and did not have .  (See my previous blog on this subject) Psychiatrists may also participate in the delivery of general medical care or even assist in surgery during the early stages of a disaster response.

We would hope that the people organizing and delivering the immediate care to the victims in Haiti are sensitive to the psychological vulnerabilities of the victims, especially the children involved. The leaders of emergency services also need to understand how important it is to provide truthful information to the people involved without inducing additional fears and anxiety. There are  special techniques to do these “risk communications

In addition, the people doing death notifications to family and friends of those who died need to be knowledgeable and skilled in this difficult task.  Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals can be very helpful in training emergency workers for these tasks but the best time to do it is during emergency planning and  disaster preparedness.

Emotional Reactions in the Aftermath of Disaster

We all can imagine the fear and anxiety that people will initially feel when an earthquake occurs with immediate devastation. We can see the stunned look on the faces of the people in images from Haiti . It may take a while for the emotions to catch up with reality. In such a situation the people may become disconnected from their feelings (called dissociation).

Denial

Sometimes the people involved are actually denying the reality that has clearly occurred. DenialIn New York City immediately after the destruction of the World Trade Center thousands of people “disappeared”.  So many people did not come home that night and were buried in the rubble. Once it was established missing people were not registered at local hospitals, it should have been obvious that these people had perished. However families began posting “missing persons posters” all around Manhattan with a picture and a  description of the lost person with a phone number to call if the person were found. It took a week or two before the originators of most of these posters came back and changed the posters to memorials with people often putting flowers next to them. While this specific phenomena may not be occurring in Haiti, we can only imagine the difficulty that people are having adjusting to the sudden disappearance of important people in their lives. This is made even more difficult since, for most a funeral was not possible and for many the bodies will never be found.

Grieving

It was estimated that 10,000 children were grieving after the loss of a parent or a close relative following the 3000 deaths in the New York tragedy in 9/11. In Haiti more than 150,000 people are estimated to have died in this disaster so you can do the math as to acute grief among adults and children.  When people die violently, unexpected or when children are killed, the grieving that follows by their loved ones takes on special characteristics. It tends to be complicated by other psychiatric conditions such as post traumatic stress, major depression or even suicidal thoughts. Grieving in such situations tends to bring on alcohol and drug use in some people. It is more difficult to resolve all the powerful emotions especially the anger and the grief which can linger on for many years.

It is probably fair to say that the entire country of Haiti will be going through a prolonged grieving period but most people will not require psychological counseling even if it were available. The social networks including the church will provide most of the support. In fact, it has been shown that  following most disasters the majority of people will have great resiliency and will bravely deal with the tragedy albeit with a heavy heart. Their lives will be changed forever and they will never forget what happened. There will be memorials and anniversary events, which will be helpful to the grieving process.

Post Traumatic Stress

Having acknowledged the resiliency that most people will show after such mass trauma, many people will have at least some symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD). They will have recurrent and intrusive distressing recollections of the events that they have seen and been through. This can include nightmares and daytime flashbacks. At times people will act or feel as if the traumatic event were recurring. There may even be hallucinations or misperceptions where real things are misperceived as something related to the recent traumatic events. For example, the noise or vibrations of a passing plane or truck might immediately bring back a flood of the feelings that occurred during the earthquake. This can include rapid heart beat, fast breathing and other physical symptoms. When there are even mild after-shocks following a major earthquake some people are overwhelmed with emotion.

In the aftermath of such an event,  people suffering post traumatic stress symptoms can make efforts to avoid conversations or thoughts associated with the trauma. They may avoid certain locations or even people who will remind them of the recent trauma. Some will feel detached and estranged from other people and may not be able to have any loving feelings for a long time. There can be difficulty in falling or staying asleep, increased outbursts of anger, difficulty concentrating and hypervigilence. Quite characteristically people who are having symptoms of post traumatic stress will have an exaggerated startle response in which they can typically  appear to “jump out of their skin” after a loud or unexpected noise.

While at least 50 % of people exposed to the horrendous experience of a major earthquake can have one or more of these symptoms, perhaps only 10-15% will have significant symptoms lasting for more than one month in a pattern, which mental health professionals will diagnose as PTSD. Depending on the criteria used, some research has suggested higher numbers than I have stated above..

Treatment For Psychological Problems after a Traumatic Event

We have learned a great deal from past experiences, how to offer psychological help in the aftermath of a disaster. As previously mentioned, it is most important to assist with food shelter and help people find out about what happened to loved ones. In the past survivors were commonly offered a group technique called “critical incident stress debriefing (CISD)” where people were encouraged to relive their emotional experience in a supportive group environment. This technique has come under scrutiny as to whether it is the best technique or not and when and if  it should be used. Experience has taught disaster experts that while some group meetings maybe helpful, it is usually best to use them to provide survivors with needed information about coping with real issues as well some general information about the emotional reactions which they may be having, perhaps cautioning about the tendency in such a situation for some people to turn to alcohol and drugs. At the same time such meetings will allow mental health professionals to observe and identify the participants who may be doing poorly and require more specific individual or group therap. This treatment may be a specialized cognitive behavior type of treatment or more traditional psychotherapy

There has been some interesting research, which suggests that certain medications given during the early stage of disaster may prevent or minimize the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms. However at the present time medications of choice that are given are usually mild tranquilizers or sleep medication. Obviously people with severe symptoms or preexisting major mental disorders may require specific medications.

The Secondary Victims of Disaster

The psychological effects of a disaster not only potentially impact the people who live in Haiti or were there when the earthquake struck, but can also effect the emergency personnel who flowed into Haiti to provide services and who can  become secondary victims. This includes all the fire, police, rescue teams and military personnel as well as the many doctors, nurses, including mental health professionals. Even though many of these workers are used to seeing people who are traumatized, injured and dying or dead, the magnitude of this tragedy may be beyond anything that they have seen or experienced.

ANDERSON COOPERThe Media Are Often Neglected as Potential Victims of PTSD

The other night I saw Anderson Cooper, CNN anchor, reporting from Haiti. He was telling about the dead bodies of children being pulled out of the rubble and other very difficult scenes. He was clearly emotionally affected. It is the job of the working press to view the worst of all the destruction, talk to victims, as well as the families of those who have perished. They often work around the clock without much rest. I have had experience working with media people who have been through disasters and I have seen the emotional toll that can be taken on them. (See Page 42-43 of this reference)

Conclusion

It will not be easy for the Haitian people to get through this tragedy without emotional scarring. I know that among the many volunteers assisting them and their helpers will be psychiatrists and other mental health professionals who will play an important role in the recovery from this ordeal.

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